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In a sense, the Japanese was using a combination of insurgency asymmetrical warfare, in combination with more conventional means of achieving battlefield domination. For those of you who are interested in military commitment, the sheer scale of logistics, and the mismatch of capabilities between the Imperial Japanese and the British Empire for the Malayan campaign could not be starker.

The Japanese were equipped with over tanks, and modern combat aircraft.

The Battle For Singapore by Thompson Peter - Book - Paperback - Military | eBay

This meant on the onset the British Empire could not fight adequately in an armoured warfare setting. Furthermore, the British Empire airpower was outmatched 2 — 1 in favour of the Japanese, with that total going down further, as half of all air units were destroyed by the Japanese in the first few days of the battle. The odds were already in the Japanese favour.

While some British Empire planners would have preferred more capacity, the primary aims of British grand strategy was to bolster its forces fighting Nazi Germany and Italy. The British Empire forces were taken by surprise by the tenacity, technological sophistication and strength of the Japanese Imperial Army.

Both ships were later destroyed by Japanese bombers as they did not have appropriate air cover and demonstrated how aircraft could destroy large naval surface ships. The so called belief that Singapore was an impregnable fortress, could not be further from the truth. The Japanese were able to utilise its air, land and light tank units in combination to launch pincer attacks cutting off British Empire forces, and destroying them.

The British High Command did not expect the Japanese to utilise armour in this way, and were ill prepared for this kind of warfare. If the British were able to predict the Japanese use of both air power and light tanks, then maybe countermeasures could have been brought in, and a more defensive strategy based upon counterattacks and protecting flanks through use of combined air, naval and land assets may have ameliorated the crisis. The uniforms which the British Empire forces wore were more cumbersome than their Japanese opponents.

Plus, the soldiers were not trained or equipped to deal with conditions in the Malayan jungle. Military strategy and thinking is based upon consolidation in order to counterattack in defensive warfare. However, once the British Empire forces withdrew to Singapore, they did not prepare adequately for the inevitable amphibious assault from the Imperial Japanese forces. From an international military perspective, the political leadership of British Prime Minister Churchill was under increasing pressure from both at home and from his American allies to been seen to be doing something to fight the Japanese.

The Japanese overwhelmed the British Empire forces and fought their way down with sophisticated armour, aircraft using pincer movements to destroy Allied forces. British Prime Minister Churchill, feeling the credibility and honour of the British Empire at stake forbade any withdrawing or surrendering. This led to an unnecessary loss of life, and was a testament to politics overriding military judgement. However there is a wider issue here — one of a broader strategic picture. There was a catalogue of strategic failures on the part of the British High Command which can be attributed to of imperial arrogance of the part of the British High Command which needs to be discussed.

The British High Command should have supplied more modern fighter aircraft including the Spitfire to replace the aging biplanes which were tasked with providing air defence of the Malayan peninsula.

Generals at War (National Geographic) - The Battle of Singapore

In addition the Royal Navy should have deployed battleships sooner with adequate anti-aircraft defence systems to prepare for the battle of Singapore. But we will never know for certain. Due to the fact the British high Command viewed the Japanese as an unworthy adversary who did not possess the capabilities, technical knowledge or ability to fight their European adversaries was a tremendous failing. On February 13th , Japanese forces destroyed the massive fifteen inch coastal guns and on the 15th General Percival entered talks with General Yamashita for the unconditional surrender of Empire forces.

The General along with 80, Empire forces including Indians, British and Australians were taken and many suffered brutality at the hands of the Japanese in the POW camps. More than half never returned home. On a wider strategic level, the fall of Singapore was symbolic of the fall of the British Empire in the Far East, and one where the British could never recover its position militarily, or strategically. It was a testament to how the British Empire could not adequately plan to fight a war on multiple fronts, and while they were able to understand German tactics and strategies, were totally ignorant of how the Japanese waged war.

This lack of understanding in my opinion, led to inadequate planning and a failed strategy which led to an extremely high cost in both manpower, and material. For the Japanese this was a tremendous victory and also a testament to a narrative that an Asian power can defeat a European Imperial power in a military campaign.

Battle of Singapore

He subsequently escaped with his Indian Soldiers in a daring escape and did not surrender. You said that the British Empire failed to prepare for a multifront war, however no country on Earth could face Germany in Europe and the North Sea, Itlay in Africa and the Mediterranean and Japan in Asia and the Pacific at the same time and commit the full amount of resources necessary to defeat them. I remember the first time i went to Singapore in and was quickly reminded by locals how silly we were in losing Singapore to the Japanese.

Causeway bridge linking Sing with Johor Bahru was another reminder of were the battle was lost. Fort Siloso, Sentosa island Fort Siloso was built in the late 19th century. During that time, Singapore had become an important trading port for Britain, so it was imperative that the island was protected from sea invasion. Are they really that pathetic that they insist on telling it to any British citizen that goes to Singapore?

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I have lived in Singapore for four years now and have never had that come up in conversation. That said, the average Singaporean and I now was not around when these events took place. Any discussions I have had with Singaporeans on the topic have been largely pragmatic. The fall of Singapore is partly Churchill he refused aircover for the ground and sea forces for the same reason he was wrong about every military decision of the entire war. Second the utter incompetence of the British Army leadership from the first to the last day of the war.


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With the honourable exceptions of Slim and maybe Alexander. When you read the article you may tell yourself it could never happen again? You are saying that he was not meant to compromise, decide or gave everything. To the catastrophe in the Aegean Churchill was responsible in whole or part for the greatest disasters of the war. The pitifully few victories only came about when Allanbrooke and the cabinet dug their heels in. You mean where despite initial setbacks Churchill kept Greece from being a Soviet satellite after the war?

Allanbrooke had a bit of talen but when it came to publishing self aggrandizement he was quite excellent. Allanbrooke genuinely believed that the United States Army would consent to having him be the commander of the liberation of France despite the US Army committing far more men and equipment to the campaigns.

I think the Crete operation was another blow to the allies especially as Italy was then backed up by the Nazis who diverted equipment and military personnel south from their eastern campaign into Russia. The British did have good success mind you in Northern Africa defeating , Italians vs 50, British forces, but were pushed back again when Germany brought over the panzer divisions.

It was astonishing how throughout all that Malta managed to hold out down to the will of British garrisons there and the local people who all experienced a bomb dropping on them or nearby. The order to the peninsula was made to be at the discretion of the commander in theater. Unfortunately First Sea Lord Adm. Pound picked Adm.

Battle of Singapore

Thomas Phillips, to command in the Pacific probably his most boneheaded decision with the possible exception of his orders to PQ Phillips a man who was a desk sailor his whole life, was the one who thought continuing on was the right decision. General Percival had plenty of time to entrench and plenty of time to turn that peninsula in a walk in hell. Could he have won? RAF intelligence officer called Patrick Heenan was allegedly the person truly responsible.

Did it because of money and big chip on his shoulder.